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Automotive Sensor Applications

Oct. 12, 2023

Automotive Sensor Applications

The information detected by automotive sensors includes vehicle motion status and information required for driving maneuvers, vehicle control, motion environment, and abnormal condition monitoring. A variety of sensors are used on automotive electronic control systems, such as air flow meters, pressure sensors, position sensors, speed sensors, temperature sensors, and gas concentration sensors. Under the joint action of these sensors, the automotive electronic control system provides centralized control of the engine, chassis, driving safety, and information.

1. electronically controlled gasoline injection

The electronically controlled gasoline injection system calculates the fuel injection quantity according to the signals from the air flow meter sensor or intake pressure sensor, engine speed sensor, throttle position sensor, camshaft position sensor, intake temperature sensor, coolant temperature sensor, oxygen sensor, etc., as shown in the figure, which enables the engine to realize the best matching of air and fuel in various working conditions, increase power, reduce fuel consumption, reduce exhaust pollution and other effects. exhaust pollution and other effects. Under certain conditions, the computer can correct the fuel supply according to the oxygen concentration signal output from the oxygen sensor to keep the mixture concentration in the ideal state.

Automotive Sensor Applications

(1)Injection volume control

The electronic control unit calculates the amount of fuel injected based on the signals provided by the air flow sensor or intake pressure sensor, engine speed sensor, intake air temperature sensor, and coolant temperature sensor. The optimum injection quantity for each operating condition of the engine is stored in the memory of the electronic control unit.

(2)Injection Timing Control

When the engine uses a multi-point fuel injection system, the ECU in addition to controlling the amount of fuel injected, but also according to the engine cylinders point order and different engine conditions and the injection time control in the best moment.

(3)Intake Boost Control

Intake boost control is the ECU controls the switch of the boost control valve according to the engine speed signal detected by the engine speed sensor to change the effective length of the intake pipe to realize the intake boost in the low and medium-speed rpm zones and high-speed rpm zones to improve the charging efficiency of the engine. The turbocharging control is installed on the engine with electronically controlled turbocharger, which ensures that the optimum boost value is obtained during engine operation. The turbocharged engine exhaust temperature is high and prone to deflagration.

(4)Control of engine output voltage

The electronic control unit controls the excitation current according to the speed input from the engine speed sensor, battery temperature and other information to realize the control of the generator output voltage. When the generator output voltage exceeds the rated value, the ECU makes the excitation circuit turn on for a shorter period of time, weakening the excitation current and reducing the generator voltage.

(5)Fuel cutoff control

The fuel cutoff control of the engine is categorized into deceleration fuel cutoff control and overspeed fuel cutoff control. Deceleration cut-off control is a car in normal driving, the driver suddenly relaxes the accelerator pedal, ECU according to the speed signal will automatically cut off the fuel injection control circuit, so that the fuel injection is interrupted.

(6)Safety Insurance and Standby Functions

When the ECU detects a malfunction in the electronic control system, it will automatically follow the data pre-set by the ECU to keep the engine running but with reduced engine performance so that it can be taken to a service station for repair as soon as possible. When the ECU itself fails, it will automatically enable the standby system to put the engine into limp condition so that the car can be taken to the service station for overhaul.

2. electronically controlled ignition

When the engine is running, the computer makes the engine work in the best ignition situation and outputs the maximum power according to the signals from the air flow sensor or intake pressure sensor, engine speed sensor, camshaft position sensor, and temperature sensor. The system can be feedback controlled by the deflagration sensor, and its control accuracy of the ignition moment is higher than that without feedback control, but the exhaust gas purification is poor.

3. Exhaust gas recirculation systems

The system adjusts the exhaust gas recirculation rate at the right time based on information from engine speed sensors, air flow sensors or intake pressure sensors, temperature sensors, etc. to reduce nitrogen oxides in the exhaust. It is an effective means of making exhaust gas clean.

4. Cruise control system

When the car is in motion, the speed can be automatically controlled using the cruise control.
The automobile cruise control system is mainly composed of electronic modules, speed control sensors, solenoid valves and so on. The speed control sensor is a device that utilizes the speedometer shaft drive to generate a voltage proportional to the vehicle speed, and the voltage output from the sensor is fed into the electronic module.

Automotive Driving Safety System

1. Airbags (SRS)

When vehicles collide, the collision sensors at the front of the car and the safety sensors installed with the computer detect the signal of the sudden deceleration of the car, the computer receives this signal and processes it so that the ignition powder quickly explodes and produces nitrogen gas to fill up the airbag to form a cushion and avoid injuries.

2. Radar Collision Avoidance System

In order to prevent rear-end accidents, safety distance automatic control device in the radar (used as speed and distance sensors) can measure the distance between the two cars, speed, relative speed and other relevant information, entered into the computer after comparison, if the measured distance is less than the safety distance, the computer sends out an alarm message, if the driver does not take measures, the actuator will automatically play a role in the automobile's braking system to slow down the automobile, to prevent the accident from occurring.

3. Headlight control

The automatic headlight control system includes an automatic headlight switch and an automatic dimming system. In this control system, the sunlight sensor mounted on the instrument panel generates a weak current when exposed to daylight, and the size of the current is proportional to the amount of light received.
When driving at night, in order to reduce the mutual interference of the lights of the oncoming traffic, the headlight has the function of far and near light irradiation.

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Automotive Sensor Applications